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THE EXTENSION OF THE BRITISH RULE - Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions



1. At the end of First Anglo-Maratha war, ________ agreement was signed between the Marathas and the British. (Salbai Agreement)
2. The Subsidiary Alliance system was implemented by _________ (Wellesley)
3. The Doctrine of Lapse policy was implemented in the year ________ (1848 AD)
4. The Doctrine of Lapse policy was implemented by _____ (Dalhousie)


1)Explain the reasons for First Anglo-Maratha War. (For 3 or 4 marks)

1. The Marathas installed Shah Alam-II on Mughal Empire throne.
2. Shah Alam gave Kora and Allahabad to Marathas.
3. This led to enmity between British and Marathas.
4. During this time, Peshwa Madhav Rao died.
5. Narayanrao, who succeeded him was murdered by Raghobha.
6. Nanafadnavis made Madhavaraya (son of Narayanaraya) as Peshwa.
7. Angered, Raghobha sought the help of the British.
8. The British used this opportunity to declare war on the Marathas.

2) Explain the reasons for First Anglo-Maratha War. (When asked for 2 marks)
1. Peshwa Madhav Rao, the strong man of Maratha, died.
2. Narayan Rao, who succeeded him was murdered by Raghobha.
3. Nanafadnavis made Madhavaraya (son of Narayanaraya) as Peshwa.
4. Angered, Raghobha sought the help of the British.
5. The British used this opportunity to declare war on the Marathas

3)What were the conditions under Subsidiary Alliance? Explain.

1. The Indian Kings had to keep the British Army in their kingdom.
2. Its expenses should be bear by the king.
3. The King had to have a British Resident in his court.
4. Without British permission, the king couldn’t appoint any Europeans.
5. British consent is required for war or negotiation.
6. The company provides internal or external protection to that state.

4)Describe the Third Anglo-Maratha War.

1. Maratha families made efforts to protect their independence.
2. Peshwa BajiRao-II tried to free himself from the British.
3. He burnt down the British Poona Residency.
4. But he completely surrendered in Koregaon and Ashti battles.
5. The British abolished Peshwa post & BajiRao was pensioned.
6. Shivaji's descendant PRATAPASIMHA was installed in Satara.

5)How did the Doctrine of Lapse support the expansion of British Empire in India?
1. This policy was implemented by Dalhousie. (in 1848)
2. Adopted children of Indian Kings had no rights to throne.
3. Such states were merged with the British Empire.
4. Jhansi, Satara, Jaipur, Sambalpur and Udaipur were annexed. - So, the Doctrine of Lapse supported the expansion of British Empire.

6)Which were the states that came under the Doctrine of Lapse policy?
Jhansi, Satara, Jaipur, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur etc.


1)Through which wars, the English made the other Europeans countries not to challenge them in India?
(Through Carnatic Wars)

2) Through which battles, the British gained complete political control over the province of Bengal?
(Battles of Plassey and Buxar)

3)Despite winning the battles of Plassey and Buxar, British activity was limited to Bengal and Bombay. Why?
Since Mysore and Maratha kingdoms were strong in the south and west of India.

4)Who succeeded in organizing the Sikhs?
(Ranjit Singh)

5) The First Anglo-Maratha War was fought during ________
(1775 to 1782).     

6) Who was the Mughal emperor who lost the battle of Buxar and was under British protection?
(Shah Alam-II)

7) Who restored the Shah Alam-II to the throne of Delhi?
(The Marathas)

8) Which territories did Shah-Alam II give to the Marathas for placing him on the throne of Delhi?
(Kora and Allahabad)

9) Why did enmity arise between the British and the Marathas as Kora and Allahabadwere given to the Marathas?
Shah Alam-II was formerly had given Kora and Allahabad to the British. The British were annoyed because it was given to the Marathas.

12) Who was the strongest Peshwa of the Marathas who died before the 1st Anglo- Maratha War?
(Peshwa Madhava Rao)

13) Who succeeded Peshwa Madhava Rao after his death?
(His brother Narayana Rao)

14) Peshwa Narayana Rao was murdered by _______
(Raghoba or Raghunatha Rao)

15) What should Raghoba do in relation to Narayana Rao?

(Narayan Rao's uncle)

16) Under the leadership of Nana Fadnavis, who was made Peshwa instead of Raghoba? 
(Madhav Rao II)

17) Who was the Madhava Rao-II?
(Son of late Peshwa Narayan Rao)

18) Whose help did Raghobha seek when he did not get support from the Marathas? 
(Help of British)

19) Who was made Peshwa at the end of 1st Anglo-Maratha War?
(Madhava Rao –II)

20) When Wellesley became Governor General, what situation was favorable for his expansion of empire?
(By that time, Maratha and Mysore kingdoms were already weakened)

21) When did Wellesley introduce the Subsidiary Alliance system?
(In 1798 AD)

22) What was the original purpose of the Subsidiary Alliance system? Or why did Wellesley introduce the Subsidiary Alliance system?
(To bring to bring the local kings under his control)

23) What is Subsidiary Alliance system?
A military protection agreement between the East India Company and the Indian states.

24) What help did the British give to the states that accepted the Subsidiary Alliance system?

The Company would provide protection to the state from any internal or external aggression.

25) The first state to enter Subsidiary Alliance system was _______

26) Which Indian states signed the Subsidiary Alliance system?
Hyderabad, Mysore, Oudh, Thanjavur, Maratha, Arcot, Poona, Birar, Gwalior etc.

27) When was the second Anglo-Maratha war fought?
(1803 to 1805 AD)

28) What was the reason for Second Anglo- Maratha war?
The differences among the Maratha Chieftains was the reason for Second Anglo-Maratha war.

29) How did Wellesley get an opportunity to enter into the internal affairs of the Marathas?
1. In 1802, Holkar's army defeated Scindia and the Peshwa.
2. So Peshwa BajiRao-II sought the help of British.
3. Thus Wellesley got an opportunity to enter into the Maratha cause.

30) Why did Peshwa BajiRao-II seek help from British (Wellesley)?
Holkar's army defeated Scindia and the Peshwa. Enraged Peshwa BajiRao-II sought the help of British.

31) Why did Wellesley resign his post and return home?

Wellesley's battle-thirstiness increased the company's financial burden. He was criticized for this and resigned from his post and returned home.

32) 3rd Anglo-Maratha War was fought during ____________

(1817 to 1818 AD).

33) In 1817, Peshwa Baji Rao-II attacked and burnt ______________
(British Residency at Poona).

34) Which were the battles in which the Peshwa finally surrendered to the British in the 3rd Anglo-Maratha War?

(Battles of Koregaon and Ashti)

35) British after granting pension to Peshwa BajiRao-II, to whom made the ruler of Satara?

(Shivaji's descendant Pratapasimha)

36)Why did British installed Shivaji's descendant Pratapasimha as the ruler of Satara?
(To suppress the Maratha resistance.)

37) After whose death in 1839, political anarchy broke out in Punjab?
(Death of Ranjith Singh)

38) Which treaty was signed between the British and the Sikhs in 1809?
(The Treaty of Frendship)

39) What humiliating agreement did the Punjab army have to sign with the British in 1846?
(Lahore Agreement)

40) Opposition to the ‘Direct Rule by British’ on Punjab was led by ________ and ________ in Lahore & Multan respectively.

(Chattar Singh Attariwala & Moolraj)

41) Who finally merged Punjab into the British Empire?

42) Who brought the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ policy?

43) When did Dalhousie come to India as Governor General?
(In 1848 AD)

44) What was the original purpose of all policies of Dalhousie?
To integrate Indian princely states with the British Empire.

45) Which policy was used as a POLITICAL WEAPON by Dalhousie?
(Doctrine of Lapse Policy)

46) What do you mean by Doctrine of Lapse?
If an Indian king died childless, his adopted son had no right of succession.

47) Why did Dalhousie used the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ policy as a political weapon?
Because Dalhousie already knew that, many Indian kings have no children.

48) Who was the father of Ranjit Singh?
Sardar Maha singh,the leader of Sukerchakia Misl.

49) When was Ranjit Singh born? 
(In 1780 AD)

50) What is a ‘Misl’?
(Major Sikhs Confederacies)

51) Who give the title of 'Raja' to Ranjit Singh?'
Zaman Shah of Kabul gave the title of ‘Raja’ to Ranjith Singh.

52) Why did Zaman Shah give the title of ‘Raja’ to Ranjith Singh?
When Shah Zaman of Kabul invaded India, Ranjith Singh offered his services to him. Hence pleased Zaman Shah gave him a title of ‘Raja’.

53) To which place did ZamanShah appoint RanjitSingh as a governor?
(Appointed as Governor of Lahore.)

54) What was the aim of Ranjit Singh?
Ranjith Singh aimed at achieving absolute power over all the Sikhs.

55) How did Ranjit Singh establish his own kingdom in Punjab?
He took control over all the Sikh Misls to the west of Sutlej. Hence he established his own kingdom in Punjab.

56) Who were in the army of Ranjit Singh?
The army of Ranjit Singh included of Sikhs, Gurkhas, Biharis, Pathans& Muslims.

57) Where did Ranjit Singhstart a Foundry (workshop) to manufacture cannons?

(In Lahore)

58) Ranjit Singh died in __________
(In 1839 AD)


1)After the Battle of Buxar, who were the impediments for the expansion of British Empire in India?

1. Maratha Peshwas
2. Hyderali and Tipu Sultan of Mysore
3. Ranjit Singh of Punjab

2)What were the routes taken by the British to expand their empire in India from mid-18th century to mid-19th century?
1. Subsidiary Alliance System
2. Doctrine of Lapse.
3. Three Anglo-Maratha Wars.
4. Four Anglo-Mysore Wars.
5. Two Anglo-Sikh Wars

3)What were the three methods followed by Wellesley to expand his empire?
1. Subsidiary Alliance System
2. Wars against New States
3. Direct control of Company's subordinate states

4)What were the effects of Subsidiary Alliance System?

1. Maintenance of British army became easy.
2. Indian states came under their control.
3. Indian states suffer economic exploitation.
4. A number of Indian states became victim.

5)Describe the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
1. Differences among the Maratha leaders were the main reason.
2. There was enmity between Holkar family & Sindhia family.
3. In 1802, Holkar's army defeated Sindhia and the Peshwa.
4. Enraged Peshwa sought the British help.
5. It provided Wellesley to intervene in Maratha affairs.
6. The Peshwa signed the Treaty of Bassein, accepted Subsidiary Alliance.
7. The Holkar, Bhonsle and Sindhia families united against this.
8. From 1803 to 1805, Wellesley defeated the Marathas in many battles.

6) How did the 2nd Anglo-Maratha War end?OR How was peace established at the end of the 2nd Anglo-Maratha War?

1. From 1803 to 1805, Wellesley defeated the Marathas in many battles.
2. But his battle-thirstiness increased the debt of the company.
3. He was heavily criticized.
4. Hence he resigned & returned to his homeland. Thus a temporary peace was established and the war ended.

7)What were the consequences (results) of 3rd Anglo-Maratha war?

1. Peshwa Bajirao-II surrendered to the British.
2. The British abolished the Peshwa post.
3. They granted a pension to Peshwa.
4. They installed Pratapa Simha as the ruler of Satara.

8)Describe the Anglo-Sikh wars.
1. British broke the ‘Treaty of Friendship' &invaded Punjab.
2. So there was a war between British and Punjab army.
3. Finally, Sikhs lost & signed the ‘Treaty of Lahore’.
4. British Resident became the real ruler of Punjab.
5. Punjab became dependent state of British.
6. In 1848, the British started to impose direct rule on Punjab.
7. The Sikhs, who opposed were defeated again. 8. Finally the Dalhousie merged Punjab with British Empire.

9)What were the consequences of the direct rule of British on Punjab in 1848?

1. The Sikhs opposed this.
2. Chattar Singh Attariwala & Moolaraj were their leaders.
3. But Punjab people were defeated. 4. Dalhousie annexed Punjab with British Empire.

10)What were the results of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ policy?
1. Dalhousie’s intension was fulfilled.
2. Many Indian states were merged with British Empire.
3. All the Indian kings were enraged by this.
4. Even the common people also opposed it.
5. This sparked outrage and royalism among the Indians.
6. It resulted in the First War of Indian Independence.

11) Describe the achievements of Ranjit Singh?
1. He established his own kingdom in Punjab.
2. He signed the ‘Treaty of Friendship’ with the British in 1809.
3. He organized his army on the European model.
4. He started a cannon manufacturing Foundry in Lahore.
5. He protected the Sikh state without confronting the British.
6. He built an independent kingdom & ruled independent till his death.

12)What were the special qualities of Ranjit Singh?
1. He was secular minded.
2. He patronized both Hindu and Muslim spiritual leaders.
3. He appointed people of all religions as high officials.
4. He included Gorkhas, Pathans & Muslims in his army.
5. He ruled an independent kingdom till his death. 6. Protected his state without confronting the British.
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