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ECONOMY & GOVERNMENT - Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions



1. In the 20th century, government brought into practice ________ to enable economic development.


2. The organization which formulates the Five- Year plans in India is __________ 

3. In the 11th Five-Year plan, _________ was given priority.

4. The Pioneer of the Green Revolution of India was _____
(Dr M.S. Swaminathan)

5. The government encourages farmers to adopt ____________ system of farming in order to make farming environment-friendly and stable.
(Organic Farming & Zero Investment Farming)

6. NITI AYOG was established in ________
(1st Jan, 2015)


1. What is the meaning of ‘Economic Planning’?

‘Economic Planning’ is the process of achieving the goals of economic development over a period of time’.

2. Who is the ‘Father of Indian Economic Planning’?
(Sir M Vishweshwaraiah)

3. Which is the organization that approves Five-Year Plans?
(‘National Development Council’)

4. What is Green Revolution?
The drastic increase in food grain production is called ‘Green Revolution’.

5. What is ‘Post-Harvest Technology’?

The IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY, that is used to procure, process and market agricultural produce is called ‘Post-Harvest Technology’.     

6. Who is present Chairman of NITI AYOG?
(Prime Minister of India)


1. How has the role of governments increased in welfare states?

1.Previously, the duties of governments were very limited.
2.With the rise of the ‘Welfare States’, the scope of government has extended.
3. Governments came forward to provide many facilities to the people.
4. It started to interfere in the economic activities of the people.
5. Today, government’s role in economic development is huge.
6. It tries to overcome the basic problems of the people. Due to all these reasons, role of governments increased in welfare states.

2. What are the objectives of five-year plans?
1. Eradication of poverty
2. Improving the standard of living
3. Increasing the production
4. Increasing the employment
5. Reducing the economic disparities
6. Ensuring economic stability
7. Modernizing the economy

3. List out the achievements of five-year plans.

1. The National Income has increased gradually.
2. All the 3 sectors of economy have grown.
3. The modern technology usage has increased in these 3 sectors.
4. In food grain production, self-sufficiency has been achieved.
5. Employment opportunities are increased.
6. Immense progress has been recorded in science and technology.
7. Our engineer’s services are being exported to foreign countries.
8. Exports of engineering products have increased significantly.
9. Everyone is being included in the process of growth.
10. People's life expectancy and literacy have increased.
11. Population growth rate is decreasing.

4. What are the factors that lead to the Green Revolution?
1. Agricultural production dropped due to the drought of 1965-66.
2. There was a severe scarcity of foodgrains.
3. So the Indian government initiated high yielding wheat seeds.
4. It was used in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi etc.
5. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides & irrigation were used.
6. As a result, the wheat production increased enormously.
7. Later it extended to other crops also.
8. It was also used throughout the country.

5. What are the remedies for the problems faced by agricultural sector?

1. Improvement of agricultural markets.
2. Construction of granaries and cold-storage warehouses.
3. Promoting organic & natural farming.
4. Use of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides.
5. Using Nature-friendly techniques in agriculture.
6. Promoting organic farming, zero-investment farming.
7. Providing of subsidies.
8. Providing fertilizers, seeds, machinery at low prices. 9. Providing loans at low interest rates.

6. What are the objectives of NITI AYOG?
(NOTE:- I have borrowed the answer to this question from the NITI Aayog website of Govt of India.) (Learn any 6 points)
1. National development with active involvement of states.
2. To foster cooperative federalism.
3. Recognizing that strong States make a strong nation.
4. To formulate credible plans at the village level.
5. To ensure the national security interests.
6. To design strategic and long-term policy and program.
7. To provide a platform to accelerate the development.
8. To focus on technology upgradation.
9. Undertake other activities required for national development.
10. Giving special attention to the segments which have not benefited from the economic progress.


1. What is an Economic System?

Economic System is the organized system of all economic activities of human beings.

2. The main objective of the economic system is _______
(Human Welfare)

3. Till the end of the 19th century, what was the opinion of the Economists about human economic activity?

The Government shouldn’t interfere in man’s economic activities.

4. What function did governments perform till the end of the 19th century?
At that time, govts perform only fundamental duties of NATIONAL SECURITY, JUSTICE & LAW & ORDER.

5. What caused the scope of government’s involvement expanded in the 20th century?

In the 20th century, the scope of governments expanded due to the rise of welfare states.

6. With the rise of welfare states, what facilities did governments offer to citizens?

Food, clothing, shelter, education, health, sanitation, transport, connectivity etc.

7. Why Government did in the welfare states began to involve in the economic activities of citizens?
In the welfare state, GOVERNMENTS STARTED PROVIDING BASIC FACILITIES like food, clothing, shelter, education etc. to the people. Hence it started involving in the economic activities of the people.

8. What is economic fluctuation?
Economic Fluctuation is a FLUCTUATION in the national income, production, employment, investment, price etc.of any ECONOMIC SYSTEM.

9. What is Economic Stability?
When an economy moves towards progress WITHOUT EXTREME FLUCTUATIONS, it is called ‘Economic Stability’.

10. What is 'Social justice'?
The income and wealth of the country should be distributed to everybody without any discrimination is called ‘Social Justice’.

11. Which country implemented 1ST monetary policy in the world?

12. When did Russia implement economic policy?

13. After World War II, Why did governments of many countries resorted to economic planning?
(In order to resolve their economic problems)

14. What is a plan?
'Planning' is a process by which the government uses the country's resources efficiently with specific objectives to raise the standard of living of the people.'

15. Modern planning was first conceived in India by_______
(Sir. M Vishweshwaraiah)

16. A book on planning by Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is _______
(‘Planned Economy for India’)

17. The Indian Government formed the National Planning Commission in

18. What is the main objective of the NATIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION?
To precisely estimate the natural and human resources and capital in the country, and to prepare plans for their effective utilization.

19. Why do we call as 'Five Year Plan'?

As the PLAN PERIOD IN INDIA IS 5 YEARS, it is called as ‘Five Year Plan’.

20. The ‘National Development Council’ was established in ______
(In 1952)

21. Who are the members of 'National Development Council’?
Chief Ministers of all states are its members.

22. When was the first Five Year Plan implemented in India?
(In April-1, 1951)

23. How many Five Year Plans have been completed in India So far?

24. When was the 12th Five Year Plan implemented?
(April-1, 2012)

25. When is the 12th Five Year Plan over?
(March 31, 2017)

26. What is the basic problem of Indian economy?

27. During 2001-2010, Per capita income increased by ______


28. What is the primary objective of financial planning in India?
ERADICATING POVERTY AND IMPROVING THE STANDARD OF LIVING is the primary objective of Five Year Plans in India.

29. Why was in the 11th Five Year Plan, priority has given to 'Inclusive Growth'?
(In order to INCLUDE EVERYONE in the process of growth)

30. The biggest achievement of Five Year Plans was _______
(Green Revolution)

31. What is a revolution?
('A Rapid Change or Progress')

32. The Green Revolution was the result of the use of ____
(high yielding seeds)

33. Who conducted the experiment of green revolution first in the world?
In the beginning of 1960s, German agricultural scientist Dr. Norman Borlaug.

34. On which food grains did Dr. Norman Borlaug conducted many experiments?

Dr. Norman Borlaug conducted many experiments on high yielding wheat grains.

35. In which country did Dr. Norman Borlaug conduct many experiments on high yielding wheat grains?
(In Mexico)

36. Which countries made use of Dr. Norman Borlaug’s high yielding Wheat grains?
Used in Mexico and Taiwan.

37.What was the impact of the severe drought in India in 1965-66 on agriculture?
1. Agricultural production has fallen drastically.
2. Shortage of food grains increased.

38. What is pre-harvest technology?
(for 1 mark) The improved technology used in agricultural production is called ‘Pre-harvest technology'' Or 'Pre-harvest technology' refers to the use of improved technology in agricultural production by using high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation facilities etc.

39. What are the factors involved in pre- harvest technology?

1. Using high yielding seeds.
2. Use of chemical fertilizers.
3. Use of pesticides.
4. Expansion of irrigation facilities.

40. Why do we call Dr. M.S. Swaminathan as the 'Father of Green Revolution in India'?
Due to his significant role in IMPLEMENTING THE IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY in Indian agriculture, he is called as ‘Father of Green Revolution in India’.

41. At the initial stages of Green Revolution, improved technology was used only in _
__________ crop.

42. The Green Revolution was benefited only by the big and rich farmers. How?
Because POOR FARMERS COULD NOT AFFORD to buy improved seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc.

43. What is the 'Second Green Revolution 'or 'Perpetual Green Revolution''?

BY USING ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNIQUES in agriculture, efforts are being made to double production. This is called ‘Second Green Revolution' or 'Perpetual Green Revolution''.

44. The day-to-day administration of NITI Aayog is looked after by _________

45. A body established to replace the Planning Commission of India is _______
(NITI Aayog)


1. What are the common problems/deficiencies in developing countries?

1. Unemployment,    
2. Poverty
3. Backward Agriculture   
4. Unequal Distribution of Income
5. Lack of Transport Connectivity  
6. The Problem of Education 7. Health Issues.

2. Which three factors should a country keep in mind while implementing economic planning?
1) What should be produced?
2) How much should be produced?
3) How to distribute what is produced?

3. Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Father of Economic Planning in India'. Why? 
1. He was the first to think about MODERN PLANNING IN INDIA.
2. In 1934, he published a book called ‘PLANNED ECONOMY FOR INDIA'.
3. In this book, he stressed the need for planning.
4. So he is called the ‘Father of India's Economic Planning’.

4. Write a note on - ‘National Development Council’
1. It was established in 1952.
2. Chief Ministers of all states are its members.
3. Approves the draft copy of the Five Year Plans.
4. Focuses on the balanced regional development.

5. List out the growth of Indian NATIONAL INCOME in the view of Five Year Plans.
1. In the first 20 years period of Planning, our NATIONAL INCOME grew by 3.5%.
2. In the following 20 years it increased by 5%.
3. It increased by 5.6% during 1991-2000.
4. 7.3% increased during 2001-2010.
5. PER CAPITA INCOME has also increased accordingly.
6. Today 59% of National Income comes from the SERVICE SECTOR.

6. Explain the contribution of three sectors of the economy to the growth of National Income. 
Explain the growth of agriculture, industry and service sector in the background of Five Year Plans.
1. Initially National Income from AGRICULTURAL SECTOR is more than 50%.
2. Now it has come down to 12%.
3. Now the highest (59%) revenue comes from the service sector.
4. Self-sufficiency in food-grain production has been achieved.
5. Food-grain production has increased 5 times.
6. Employment opportunities are high in industry and service sector.

7. Explain the development of science and technology sector in the background of Five Year Plans.
1. There is an ENORMOUS PROGRESS in the field of science and technology.
2. The use of modern technology is increasing in ALL THREE SECTORS.
3. OUR TECHNICIAN SERVICES are being exported to foreign countries.
4. Export volume of ENGINEERING GOODS has increased.

8. What are the failures of Five Year Plans? OR What are the issues that the Five Year Plans are yet to address?

1. Failure to EMPLOY ALL.
2. POVERTY cannot be eradicated completely.
3. The RICH-POOR DISPARITY is increasing.
4. SOCIAL JUSTICE is yet to be achieved.
5. There is still a LACK OF BASIC AMENITIES.

9. How did India achieve SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN FOOD GRAINS production by 80’s decade?

1. At the beginning, Green Revolution was USED ONLY FOR WHEAT.
3. It was extended to the ENTIRE COUNTRY ALSO.
-Thus, by the 80’s decade, India achieved self- sufficiency in the production of food grains.

10. How was the cry, that the benefits of the Green Revolution did not reach the poor farmers rectified? OR How improved technology in agriculture could be used by all classes of farmers? OR 
How agricultural production increased after the Green Revolution?
1. THERE WAS A CRY, that Green Revolution benefits reached only big and rich farmers.
2. At that time, the GOVERNMENT ARRANGED SUBSIDY for small and poor farmers.
3. DISTRIBUTED SEEDS, FERTILIZERS, MACHINERY at very low cost to poor farmers.
4. LOANS WERE GIVEN AT LOW INTEREST RATES in banks and cooperative societies.
- In this way, the Green Revolution (Improved Technology) reached all.

11. What are the challenges posed by the INCREASE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION? OR 
Why did the 'Post-Harvest Technology' come to use?
1. The prices of agricultural products decreased.
2. This caused loss to the farmers.
3. Government had to give farmers a fair price for their crops.
4. Markets had to be reformed for this.
5. Surplus produce had to be processed.
6. Granaries and cold storages had to be built.
7. Overall it led to 'Post-Harvest Technology'.

12. What are the factors involved in the ‘Second Green Revolution' or ‘Perpetual Green Revolution'?

1. It includes ORGANIC FARMING method.
2. Use of BIO FERTILIZERS, instead of chemical fertilizers.
4. Doubling production through ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNIQUES.

13. What are the features of NITI Aayog?

2. Provides the NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS to tackle the challenges of Govt.
5. FOUR MAIN HEADS are working under NITI Aayog.

14. Which are the four main heads of NITI Aayog?

1. Policy and Program Framework
2. Co-operative Federalism
3. Monitoring and evaluation
4. Think-tank & knowledge and innovation hub
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