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JAPAN AND BRAZIL THROUGH A TRAVELER’S EYE - Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions



Japan  and  Brazil  through  a  Traveler’s  Eye'  is  a  travelogue written by 'George Mikes'. In these passages the writer has, unintentionally, brought  out the  culture and  mannerisms  of the people of Japan and Brazil in a funny way. He  decidedly  comments  that  within  fifteen  minutes  after you  land  in  Japan,  we  are  convinced  that  the  Japanese  are highly  refined  in  their  social  manners;  Even  though  Japan has  a  very  large  population  and  its  cities  are  overcrowded, every  Japanese  respects  each  other's  privacy.  The  author opines  that  Japanese  conduct  their  confidential  businesses and  matters  of  love  and  quarrel  in  perfect  privacy.  At  a public  telephone  booth,  because  of  the  other  Japanese,  if they listen to his conversation prefer to ignore it, respecting his privacy.  
The  writer  objectively  informs  us  that  every  visitor  can notice  the  mania  for  'bowing'  well-mannered  Japanese gesture  to  show  respect  to  one-another.  Here  everybody 'bows'  to  one-another  to  show  their  respect,  and  in  a  very short  time  even  a  visitor  to  Japanese  will  be  influenced  to imitate their manners. It points out that 'bowing' has become a  'Mania'  to  them.  He,  hilariously,  narrates  that  even  train conductor  walks  into  the  middle  of  the  coach  and  'bows' ceremoniously  in  both  directions  and  then  starts  checking tickets of passengers. He also narrates a funny incident that even a 'deer'  in a Japanese province of Nara bowed to him before  snatching  the  food  packet,  the  author  had  brought with  him  to  feed  the  deer.  Even  at  a  bus  stop,  people respectfully bow to each other before pushing and elbowing each  other  to  get  into  the  bus.  If  invited  to  a  dinner,  the guests have to slurp the soup noisily to show appreciation to the hostess, else she will consider you ill-mannered.  
In  the  excerpt  'Traffic  in  Brazil'  the  writer  brings  out  the hustle  and  bustle  of  Brazil,  chaotic  traffic.  Even  though Brazilian's are easy-going people, they transform into speed devils  as  soon  asthey  get  behind  the  wheels  of  a  car. Even though motor cars arecostly in Brazil and most people can't afford  a  car,  the  number  of  cars  on  Brazilian  roads hasincreased  by  leaps  and  bounds.  'Walking'  on  Brazilian roads or crossing the roads has become extremely difficult. The  Brazilian  drivers  do  not  care  for  the  lives  of  people who walk. They do not care for the other drivers also. They compete  with  each  other,  overtake  in  all  directions  and blow  their  horn  at  each  other  in  a  mad  way.  Crossing Brazilian  road,  without  any  injury  must  be  considered lucky; you have to take risk.  
He  jokes  that  if  you  see  a  friend  on  the  other  side  of  the road and shout at him asking him how he crossed the road, he might be surprised at your stupid question and reply that he  did  not  cross  the  road  but  he  was  born  there,  implying that the traffic  on  Brazilian roads  was so  dense and people could  not  cross  the  road  only  after  waiting  for  a  very  long time.

I.    Answer  the  following questions  in  a word, a  phrase or a sentence each: -

1.    What is the double function of courtesy?

Ans: It is courtesy and it is substitute privacy.  

2.    What is the comparison which is used by the author in the essay fora man's telephone receiver?
What  is  a  man’s  telephone  –  receiver  in  the  lesson ‘Japan and Brail through a Traveler’s Eye’?        
Ans: Castle  

3.    What  is  quainter,  formal,  oriental  and  infectious  in Japan?


4.    What is extremely expensive in Brazil?

5.    What has more dangers than almost anything else in Japan?
Ans:Eating soup.
6.    What is the sign of appreciation while eating soup in Japan?
What is the sign of appreciation in eating soup?                     
Ans:Making a fearful noise.  

7.    Whose life is becoming more hazardous every day in Japan?
Ans:The pedestrian's life.  

8. Which comparison is used by the author to refer to a clash between the driver and a pedestrian? 
Ans:Hunter and prey.  

8.    What  do  the  driver  and  pedestrian  finally  do  after the chase in Brazil?
Ans:Smile amicably at each other.  

9.    Name  the  animal  that  bows  at  George  Mikes  in Japan
Name  the  animal  that  bowed  the  George  Mikes  in Japan. Or Which  animal  bowed  to  the  author  at  Nara  in ‘Japan and Brazil through a Traveler’s eye’?                        

10.    Who are the drivers in Brazil on the look-out for?


11.    Whose  life  is  becomingmore  hazardous  in  Brazil every day according to George Mikes?
Ans:Pedestrian's life

12.    What, according to George Mikes, do the driver and pedestrian finally do after the chase in Brazil? 
Ans: Smile amicably at each other.

13.    What is called as man's castle in Japan, according to Mikes?
Ans: A man's telephone-receiver  

14.    What did the conductors do  as soon  as they entered the train to check tickets in Japan?
Ans: They bowed in both directions.  

15.    What  have  the  people  of  Brazil  decorated  the pavements with?

Ans: Beautiful black mosaic tiles.  

16.    Which  two  cities  are  interlinked  through  the Tokaidoline?

Ans: Tokyo and Osaka.  

17.    Who  are  the  exquisitely  well-mannered  people  in George Mike’s travel writing?
Ans: Japanese  

18.    What  was  George  Mike's  observation  about  the decoration of pavements in Brazil?
Ans: They were decorated with beautiful black mosaics.  

19.    Give  anexample  which  shows  that  the  Japanese  are well-mannered people.
Ans:  They  respect  each  other's  privacy  and  bow  to  each other.  

20.    Who  are  easy  victims  of  prey  for  the  drivers  in Brazil?

Ans: Pedestrians.  

21.    What are extremely expensive in Brazil?            
Ans:Motor cars / Cars.  

22.    Why  do  Japanese  make  a  fearful  noise  while  eating soup?           
Ans:As a sign of appreciation.

II.    Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:  

III.    Answer the following questions in about 200 words:  

1.    Explain how even animals like deer follow the quaint custom of bowing in Japan, according to GeorgeMikes?

Ans: The people  of Japan are famous for their  mannerism. They  show  respect  to  elders  and  strangers  too  by  bowing. George  Mikes  was  surprised  to  find  people  of  all  ages bowing to one another. He was all the more surprised when he  saw  a  deer  in  a  place  called  Nara  in  Japan.  He  had  a packet of food in hand to offer to the animal. The deer came up  to  him,  looked  into  his  eyes  and  bowed  deeply.  It  was not  an  accidental  gesture.  It  was  a  proper  and  courteous bow. It occurred to him that the animal had learnt the habit of bowing after seeing people follow the custom very often. He  also  felt  that  it  was  something  genetic  that  made  the deer bow to him. Then, it jumped at him and snatched the food packet from his hand. This incident made him believe that even animals follow such courtesy.

2.    Explain  with  an  example  how  Japanese  respect others' privacy.

Ans: In the lesson, Japan and Brazil through A Traveler’s Eye',  George  Mikes  describes  the  surprising  level  of respect  and  privacy  shown  in  Japan.  He  writes  that,  a quarter  of  an  hour  in  Japan,  would  convince  any  person about their presence among the exquisitely well-mannered people. People in Japan live on a hopelessly over crowded island and so respecting each other's privacy becomes very important.  He  considers  the  example  of  little  red telephones  in  the  streets,  halls  of  hotels,  where  the instrument is situated on a table or on a counter, as they do not have space to spare for booths. A person conducts his most  confidential  business  transactions,  intimate  love quarrels  in  public,  but  in  perfect  privacy.  Anybody  could easily  listen-in  but  nobody  does  so  in  Japan.  A  man's telephone receiver acts as his castle.  

3.    Bowing  in  Japan  is  quainter;  more  formal,  more oriental.'  Explain  with  reference  to  Japan  and  Brazil through a Traveler’s Eye'.

Ans:  One  can  easily  notice  Japanese  mania  for  bowing. Everybody  keeps  bowing  to  everybody  else.  It  is  also infections.  We  can  make  out  that  the  Japanese  have  a complicated  hierarchy  in  bowing  as  who  bows  to  whom, how deeply and for how long. If two Japanese bow, neither is to straighten up before the other stands  erect in front of him.  It's  complicated  to  us  but  they  manage  it  without difficulty.  Within  a  family,  they  have  basic  rules-wife bows to husband, child bows to  his father, the sister bows to all brothers of whatever age.  

4.    How  do  the  people  of  Japan  respect  one  another's privacy even in a crowded place?
Ans: George Mikes in  his  essay Japan and  Brazil through Traveler’s  Eye',  states  that  the  people  of  Japan  are extremely well-mannered people. They are very courteous even to strangers. Red telephones are placed on a table or a counter  in  crowded  streets  or  hotel  halls  as  there  is  no space  to  spare  for  booths.  Even  in  such  crowded  places, people  are  allowed  to  use  telephone  peacefully.  They  are able  to  discuss  most  confidential  business  transactions  or their  love-quarrels  in  public  as  there  is  no  disturbance  to their  privacy.  No  passer-by  would  listen  to  a  single  word of  the  conversation.  A  man's  telephone  receiver  is  his castle  and  this  courtesy  is  an  amazing  quality  of  the Japanese.  

5.    Bring out the culture of the Japanese asexplained by George Mikes.   
Ans:  In  his  travelogue,  George  Mikes  narrates  four anecdotes which will help any foreign visitor to understand the  cultural  traits  of  the  Japanese  people.  The  author  first highlights  how  people's  courtesy  serves  a  double  function in Japan. He assertively states that a couple, with perfect confidence, can carry on even their intimate love quarrels in  public,  in  perfect  privacy,  without  being  apprehensive  of any  passerby  overhearing  them.  Next,  he  talks  about  the bowing mania of the Japanese people and how the Japanese manage  to  show  even  the  slightest  differences  in  their hierarchy  with a great deal  of  natural and inimitable  grace. Then,  he  narrates  how,  the  very  same  people  who,  a  few minutes  ago  had  bowed  to  each  other  with  such ceremonious  solemnity  would  behave  like  savages,  push each other aside, tread on each other's toes and elbow their way  into  the  bus.  Finally,  he  talks  about  soup-eating  in Japan. He says that, according to the Japanese, when eating soup  one  must  make  a  fearful  noise  so  as  to  express  his appreciation,  otherwise  the  guest  will  be  considered  an  ill- mannered lout.

6.    Give  an  account  of  the  crawling  traffic  in  Brazil  as mentioned by George Mikes.            
Ans:  To  give  an  account  of  the  crawling  traffic  in  Brazil, George  Mikes  cites  the  examples  of  AvenidaPresidente Vargas.  The  reader  canjust  imagine  himself  standing  there for  hours  and  trying  to  cross  the  road  without  any success,wondering how crawling traffic can proceed at such a  terrifying  speed.  He,  then  asks  the  reader  to  visualize  a scene  where  a  man  on  his  side  of  the  road  spots  his  friend on  the  other  side  and  asks  him,  how  on  earth,  he  managed to  get  over  there  and  gets  reply  that  he  was  born  on  that side.  

7.    What  are  the  views  of  George  Mikes  about  Japanese 'Mannerism of Bowing'?           
Give  an  account  of  the  complicated  way  of  Bowing  in Japan.                  
Give  an  account  of  the  Japanese  mania  for  bowing  as described by George Mikes.  
What is unique about bowing in Japan?    
Mention the hierarchy of Bowing in Japan.

Ans:  One  can  easily  notice  Japanese  mania  for  bowing. Everybody  keeps  bowing  to  everybody  else.  It  is  also infectious.  We  can  make  out  that  the  Japanese  have  a complicated  hierarchy  in  bowing  as  who  bows  to  whom, how deeply and for how long. If two Japanese bow, neither is  to  straighten  up  before  the  other  stands  erect  in  front  of him.  One  of  the  American  states  that  an  early  traffic  law which laid down if two cars met at intersection, neither was to  move  before  the  other  stands  erect  in  front  of  him.  It's complicated  to  us  but  they  manage  it  without  difficulty Within  a  family,  they  have  basic  rules-wife  bows  to husband,  child  bows  to  his  father,  the  sister  bows  to  all brothers of whatever age.  


  A travelogue-a story of a travel
  People and culture of Japan and Brazil
  Privacy in Japan
  Bowing mania
  Making sound while eating soup
  Brazilians walk slowly
  Driving speedily
  Cars are expensive
  Life of pedestrians-difficult
  The drivers quarrel but no anger or hostility
  Depiction of positive and negative aspects  

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