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LOUIS PASTEUR, CONQUEROR OF DISEASE - Class 10 1st Language English Textbook Solutions



I. About Louis Pasteur

Louis  Pasteur  was  born  on  Dec.  27,  1822,  in  Dole, France.  Pasteur’s  father  was  a  tanner  and  the  family was  not  wealthy,  but they  were  determined  to  provide a good education  for their  son.  At 9  years old,  he was admitted  to  the  local  secondary  school  where  he  was known as an average student with a talent for art.  When  he was 16, Pasteur traveled to Paris to continue his  education,  but  returned  home  after  becoming  very homesick.  He  entered  the  Royal  College  at  Besançon where he earned a Bachelor of Arts. He stayed to study mathematics,  but  failed  his  final  examinations.  He moved  to  Dijon  to  finish  his  Bachelor  of  Science.  In 1842, he applied to the Ecole Normale in Paris, but he failed  the  entrance  exam.  He  reapplied  and  was admitted in the fall of 1844 where he became graduate assistant  to  Antoine  Balard,  a  chemist  and  one  of  the discoverers of bromine.  

IV. Question and Answers  

1.  "Louis  Pasteur  was  not  a  soldier,  but  he  was  a fighter." What does the statement mean?  
Ans: -
Though Louis Pasteur did not join the army and become  a  soldier,  he  was  a  fighter  because  he  fought various kinds of diseases through his discoveries about bacteria.   

2. What are bacteria?  
Ans:  - 
Bacteria  are  vegetable  organisms  —  little  rod shaped plants which exist in the air, water and soil, and in  the  bodies  of  animals  and  plants;  some  but  not  all are  the  causes  of  diseases;  some  convert  matter  into food for plants.  

3.  As  a  scientist,  how  was  Louis  Pasteur  unique?
Ans:  - 
Louis  Pasteur  not  only  made  some  exciting discoveries about germs but he was also able to use his discoveries in very practical ways. He could help many people running various industries in France.   

4.  How  did  Pasteur  try  to  solve  difficult  problems?
Ans:  -
  Pasteur  used  to  sit  for  hours,  quite  silent  and motionless, thinking hard about the difficult problems.  

5. 1. How would Pasteur react whenever he solved a problem? 
    2.What does this reveal about him as a person?  
Ans:  - 
1.  When  he  thought  of  a  solution,  his  kind,  a tired-looking  face  would  brighten  with  pleasure  and excitement,  and  he  would rush  round  to  tell  his discovery  to  his  wife  and  to  others  who  were  helping him.  
2.  This  shows  that  Pasteur  was  sincere  about solving problems and was also  very  simple and  child- like in sharing his discoveries with others.   

6. What discoveries did Pasteur make about yeast?
Ans: -
Yeast is used to making the beer foam. Pasteur discovered that yeast was alive, made up of tiny living cells.  When  these  cells  were  healthy,  the  yeast  acted well,  but  if they were diseased, the  yeast and the  beer went wrong.  

7. What does 'spontaneous generation' mean?  
Ans:  - 
Some  scientists  believed  in  'spontaneous generation',  i.e.,  they  believed  that  germs  had  no parents but just occurred by themselves.   

8.  Did  Pasteur  believe  in  Spontaneous  generation? If not, what did he believe in?  
Ans:  - 
Pasteur  and  some  scientists  like  him  believed that  germs  were  carried  in  the  air  and  might  infect other things that came in contact with them.   

9.  In  the  statement,  "Pasteur  proved  that  he  was right" (Para 9), What did he prove?  
Ans:  -
  Pasteur  proved  that  germs  were  carried  in  the air  and  might  infect  other  things  that  came  in  contact with them.  

10. In the second soup experiment (Para 10) which soup  was  the  worst,  which  was  the  best  and  which one was better?  
Ans:  -
  In  the  second  soup  experiment,  the  bottles opened  in  the  hotel  bedroom  were  full  of  soup  which had  gone  completely  mouldy  due  to  the  presence  of many  germs;  the  bottles  opened  in  the  field  were mouldy,  but  not  quite  so  bad;  those  opened  on  the mountain  had  no  germs  in  them  at  all.  The  last  batch was  the  best,  the  first  one  was  worst,  and  the  second one better than the first one.   

11. What is Pasteurization?  
- Pasteurization is the process of heating the wine or milk of any other liquid to a temperature of 50 to 60 degrees  centigrade  to  make  the  germs  harmless. Pasteurized milk is milk which has been treated in this way  and  then  sealed  to  prevent  more  germs  from entering.  

12.  The  writer  says,"  It  would  be  impossible  to imagine Pasteur experimenting with explosives or poisonous  gas"  (Para  13).  What  quality  of  Pasteur is highlighted here?  
Ans:  - 
Pasteur's  love  for  mankind  and  his compassionate  nature  are  highlighted  in  the  sentence. He had no love for plain achievement, money or fame.   

13.  On  what  study  did  Pasteur  spend  all  his  time and energy for three years?  
Ans:  -
  For  three  years,  Pasteur  spent  all  his  time  and energy  in  tracking  down  the  cause  of  a  disease  which had ruined the silkworm industry.   

14.  How  is  vaccination  different  from  inoculation?
-  Introducing  live  organisms  into  the  body  to generate  immunity  is  vaccination  (for  viral  diseases like  small  pox,  rubella,  chicken-pox,  measles,  and tuberculosis)  whereas  introduction  of  weak  or  dead organisms into the body to produce immunity is called inoculation  (for  bacterial  diseases  like  typhoid, diphtheria and cholera).  

15. What made Pasteur believe that a cow could not have anthrax twice?  
Ans: -
When Pasteur was trying to discover a cure for the terrible disease called 'Anthrax', he found out, first of all, that a cow could not have Anthrax twice.   

16.  What  made  many  scientists  angry?  (Para  16)
-  Pasteur  began  to  wonder  whether  it  would  not be possible to make a cow and even a man just a little ill with Anthrax so that they might not get it again. He thought that this  could  be  done  by  giving  the  cows  or sheep  very  weak  old  germs  to  make  them  safe  or immune  for  the  future.  This  idea  of  giving  animals germs made many scientists angry.   

17. What is rabies?  
- Rabies is a dangerous disease of dogs and other mammals,  caused  by  a  virus  that  can  be  transmitted through  the  saliva  to  humans,  causing  madness  and convulsions.  

18. How was Pasteur a better scientist than Jenner?
Ans:  - 
Although  Dr.  Jenner  had  already  discovered how  to  vaccinate  against  smallpox,  he  did  not  really understand about bacteria. Pasteur after giving  his  life to this study was able to prove the value of inoculation and  to  find  out  ways  of  varying  it  for  different diseases.   

19.  How  was  the  very  low  death  rate  among  the troops  during  the  First  World  War  a  great  tribute to Pasteur's work?  
Ans: -
During the First World War 1 (1914-1918), the troops  going  abroad  were  »  inoculated  against  such diseases as typhoid and enteric fever, and the very low death-rate from this illness among v the troops, even in unhealthy places, was a great tribute to Pasteur's work.  

20. At the opening ceremony of Pasteur Institute in Paris, Pasteur talked about two opposing laws.  
1. Which are the two laws?  
2. Which one did he favor?  
Ans:  -
  1.  One  law  was  a  law  of  blood  and  death, opening  out  each  day  new  methods  of  destruction, forcing  nations to be always ready  for the  battle;  I the second  law  was  a  law  of  peace,  work,  and  health, whose  only  aim  is  to  deliver  f  man  from  the  disasters which  surrounded  I  him.  The  first  one  seeks  violent conquests,  j  the  other  relief  of  mankind.  
2.  Pasteur favored  the  second  law  I  of  peace,  work,  and  health because he was sure that science in obeying the law of humanity, will always  labor to enlarge the  frontiers of life.  

21. What was his message to young students on the occasion of his 70th birthday celebration?  
Ans: -
His  message was:  "First ask  you,  'What  have I done  for  my  education?'  Then  as  you  advance  in  life, what  have  I  done  for  my  country?'  so  that  someday that  supreme  happiness  may  come  to  you,  the consciousness  of  having  contributed  in  some  measure to the progress and welfare of humanity."   

22. What is the supreme happiness he talks about?
Ans:  -
  He  says  supreme  happiness  is  the  result  of  the consciousness  of  having  contributed  in  some  measure to the progress and welfare of humanity.   

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