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Text Book Question and Answers
        I.            Choose the correct answer from those given, for the following questions.
1.       Identify an example of red algae from the following.
(a)     Polysiphonia  (b) Spirogyra (c) sargassum (d) ectocarpus
Answer: (a)Polysiphonia
2.       The adult plant body is a gametophyte in
(a)     Angiosperms (b) pteridophytes (c) gymnosperms (d) bryophytes
Answer: (d)bryophytes
3.       Identify the feature exclusive to monocots
(a)     tap root system (b) fibrous root system (c) reticulate venation (d) flowers with 4 or 5 petals
Answer: (b)fibrous root system
4.       Among vertebrates, notochord is
(a) found only in the anterior half (b) found only in the larval stage
(c) found throughout the body (d) replaced by a vertebral column
Answer: (d)replaced by a vertebral column
5.       In reptiles the heart is
(a) two chambered (b) incompletely four chambered (c) three chambered (d) four chambered
Answer: (c)three chambered
6.       Identify the pair of oviparous vertebrate groups where fertilization and development are both external
(a) Fishes and amphibians (b) Reptiles and birds
(c) Amphibians and reptiles (d) Birds and mammals
Answer: (a)Fishes and amphibians
7.       The skin in amphibians has
(a)An exoskeleton of scales (b) No exoskeleton
(c) an exoskeleton of hairs (d) an exoskeleton of feathers
Answer: (b)No exoskeleton 
8.       Identify the odd one
(a)Calotes (b)Salamander (c)chameleon (d)varanus
Answer: (b)salamander
9.       Aortic arch in birds is
(a)on the right sides (b)on both the sides (c)on the left side (d)absent.
Answer: (a)on the right sides
10.   Identify the character not found in mammals
(a)Enucleate RBC (b)All similar teeth (c)viviparous condition (d)presence of mammary glands
Answer: (b)All similar teeth

    II.            Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
1.      The pigment responsible for red colour in red algae is phycoerythrin
2.      Ulothrix is an example of green algae
3.      The respiratory organs is fishes are gills
4.      Among reptiles, the heart is incompletely divided into four chambers only in crocodiles
5.      Ichtyophis is an example of limbless amphibian

 III.            Name the following
1.      Amphibian of the plant kingdom – Bryophyta
2.      Reproductive structure in gymnosperms – cones
3.      Membrane separating thorox and abdomen in mammals – Diaphragm
4.      An aquatic hightless bird – penguin
5.      The largest lizard – varanus

 IV.            Match the following
1.      Mammalia – whale
2.      Aves- ostrich
3.      Reptilian – tortoise
4.      Amphibian -  newt
5.      Pisces – carp

    V.            Answer the following questions
1.      Make a list of the salient features of brown algae.
·         Multi cellular with a flat plant body called thallus
·         Cell wall is composed of cellulose and pectin
·         Cells are eukaryotic with a prominent nucleus and many plastids
·         In addition to chlorophyll, xanthophyll is present
·         Reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual means
2.      Explain alternation of generation with reference to gymnosperm?
The process of gametophyte and sporophyte being formed alternately during the life cycle is called alternation of generation. In gymnosperms, the plant body is sporophyte which produces prominent structure called cones.
3.      Write a brief note on cones in gymnosperms?
The plant body is sporophyte, it produces structures called cones, there are female cones and male cones. Male cones consists microsporophylls which produce microspores containing male gamets. Female cones consists megasporophylls which produce megaspores containing female gamets. The fusion product zygote becomes the seed.
4.      describe the economic importance of ferns.
·         Ferns are grown for their ornamental value.
·         Leaves are used in making flower bouquet
·         Some ferns are of medicinal importance.
·         Some ferns like horse tail and club masses are involved in the formation of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum
5.      Distinguish between monocots and dicots
They have single cotyledon  
they have two cotyledons
Cotyledon remain below the soil during germination
cotyledon appear above the soil during germination
Leaves have parallel venation
leaves have reticulate venation
They have fibrous root system
they have tap root system
Vascular bundles are scattered
vascular bundles are in ring
6.      Make a list of the unique characters of phylum chordate?
·         Presence of a solid supporting structure on the dorsal side of the body called notochord
·         Presence of a dorsal, hallow tubular nerve cord.
·         Presence of opening in the pharynx called gill slits at least in the embryonic stages
7.      Make a list of any four unique features of fishes
·         Streamlined body divisible into head trunk and short tail
·         Exoskeleton composed of dermal scales
·         Locomotary structures are paired and unpaired fins
·         Respiratory organs are in the form of gills
·         They are oviparous with fertilization and development are external
8.      Name the major groups of reptiles with examples for each?
Reptiles are identified in four major groups
·         Chelones    eg- turtles and tortoises
·         Lizards     eg- house lizard and chamaeleon
·         Snakes      eg- cobra sea snake
·         Crocodiles and alligators
9.      Make a list of the main flight adaptations In birds
·         The body is streamlined
·         The exoskeleton has epidermal outgrowths called feathers which in s help in flight
·         Locomotor structures are pentadactyl forelimbs and hind limbs
·         Fone limbs are modified into wings for flying
10.  Give an example for each of the following
a.       Flyling mammal – bats
b.      Largest animal – blue whale
c.       Egg laying mammal- platypus
d.      Pouched mammal – kangaroo
e.       Largest land animal – elephant
f.       Carnivorous mammal- lion
g.      Herbivorous mammal- Horse
h.      Primate – monkey

Additional questions
1)      Name the multi cellular algae? Name the pigment present in each?
Red algae, brown algae and green
a.       Red algae – in addition to chlorophyll, a red pigment called phycoerythrin is present 
eg. Batrochospermum and polysiphonia
b.      Brown algae- in addition to chlorophyll  a brow pigment xanthophyll is present
eg- sargassum and ectocarpus.
c.       Gree algae – green pigment called chlorophyll is present
eg. Spirogyra and ulothrix
2)      Name two green algae which are unicellular?
Chlorella and chlamydo monas
3)      What are sea weeds?
The largest and most complex forms of algae which are marine called sea weeds. Eg. Saragassum
4)      What are kelps?
The largest algae which grow about 60m in length are called kelps eg. Microcystus
5)      What is thallus?
The plant body in algae is called thallus
6)      Make a list on uses of algae?
·         Used in manufacture of cattle feed
·         Brown algae used in preparation of ice creams and chocolates
·         Red algae is used for culturing bacteria in laboratory
·         It helps I purification of water
7)      Explain reproduction in algae?
·         Algae reproduce by vegetative, a sexual and sexual means vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation of thallus
·         A sexual by the formation of spores
·         Sexual reproduction by the fusion of male and female gamets
8)      What are rhizoids?
Small unicellular root like extensions present in bryophytes are called rhizoids
9)      Name the amphibians of the plant kingdom?
10)  Name the two types in bryophytes?
·         Liver worts    eg:riccia
·         Mosses          eg:funaria

11)  What is meant by alternation of generation in bryophytes?
The process of gametophyte and sporophyte being termed alternately during life cycle is called alternation of generation.
12)  Differentiate between gametophyte and sporophyte of bryophytes
Gametophyte is produce gametes               
sporophyte produce spores
They are large in size
they are smaller in size
They manufacture food with the help of chloroplast
They depend upon gametophyte for their food
13)  Write the economic importance of bryophytes
·         Mosses are used in packing flowers
·         Mosses are used in pots for.  moisture retention
·         Since mosses forma dense mat on the soil. They check erosion
·         Bryophytes can decompose the rocks and contribute to soil formation.
14)  Why are pteridophytes called tracheophytes?
Pteridophytes have vascular tissues xylem and phloem to transport water and food hence it is also called  tracheophytes
15)  What is prothallus?
The gametophyte is small but is an independent structure called prothallus
16)  Write the economic importance of pteridophytes?
a.       Ferns are grown for their arnamental values
b.      Leaves are used in making flower bouquet
c.       Some ferns are of medicinal importance
d.      Some ferns involved in the formation of fossil fuel.
17)  Give two examples for pteridophytes?
Nephrolepis, selaginella, Adiantum etc.
18)  What are gymnosperms? Give two example?
The plants in which seeds are not enclosed by fruits are called gymnosperms
Eg: cycas and pinus
19)  What are angiosperms? Give two examples?
The plants in which seeds are enclosed by fruits are called angiosperms
Eg- mustard and maize
20)  What is inflorescence?
A special branch bearing a cluster of flower is called inflorescence.
21)  Write the difference between fibrous root system and tap root system
Fibrous root system
Tap root system
Monocot plants have fibrous root system      
Dicot plants have tap root system
Primary root is short lived  
Primary root continues to grow through life
Roots develop from the base of the stem  
Produce many secondary and tertiary branches
22)  Name the classification of fishes with an example?
1. Cartilaginous fishes
Only cartilages are found in the endoskeleton Eg: sharks and ray fishes
2. Bony fishes
Endoskeleton is composed of bones.
Eg: Hippo campus and carp
23)  Write the economic importance of class pisces
1. Rearing fishes for human food
2. Liver of sharks and cods is rich in vitamin A and D
3. Dried skin of shark is used in making polishes
4. gambusia are used in biological control of mosquitoes
24)  Name only four salient features of amphibian?
The body is divisible into head, trunk and tail. There is no exo skeleton skin is moist and smooth locomotor structrures are in the form of a pair of forelimbs and a pair of hind limbs
Respiratory organs are gills in larva and pair of lungs in adult
25)  Explain oviparous and viviparous condition?
Oviparous: animals which lay eggs are called oviparous
In oviparous both fertilization and development may be external
Viviparous: animals which lay eggs are called viviparous
In viviparous both fertilization and development may be internal
26)  What are cold blooded (poikilothermic) and warm blooded (homeothermic) condition?
Cold blooded; vertebrates that keep changing their body temperature according to be changes in the environment are called cold blooded animals
Warm blooded: vertebrates that maintain a constant body temperature irrespective of changes in the environment temperature are called warm blooded animals
27)  Name the classification of birds with an example?
Flying birds
Eg: Parrot and pigeon
Flightless birds
Eg: Ostrich and kiwi
28)  Write the important of features in birds?
a.       Feathers provide protections
b.      Maintain body temperature
c.       Help in light
d.      Attempting the opposite sex
29)  Name only four salient features of Mammalia?
a.       The body is divisible into head trunk and tail
b.      The exoskeleton is represented by epidermal outgrowths  called hairs
c.       Respiratory organs are a pair of lungs
d.      Heart is four chambered aortic arch is on left side
e.       Mammary glands are present in females secrete milk to nourish the young one.
30)  What are pneumatic bones?
The bones of birds which are hallow, light and filled with air are called pneumatic bones
31)  What is meta morphism?
The changes which a larva undergoes in order to become adult are collectively called as metamorphism
32)  What is pisciculture
Rearing fishes for human food is called pisciculture
33)  What is noto chard
A solid supporting structure on the dorsal side of the body is called noto chord
34)  Important diagrams to learn
1. Parts of a flower
2. Monocot and dicot plant
3. External features of fish
4. Life cycle of frog. 
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  1. thanku for these questions but please put fill in the blanks if u Can.

  2. please put some examples for monocots and dicots sedds

  3. Ya it is actually great and help thanks....