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THE TEMPLE AND THE BODY (VACHANA) - Class 10 1st Language English Textbook Solutions



II. About Basavanna

Basavanna  was  a  12th-century  Indian  philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement  and  a  social  reformer  during  the  reign  of the  Kalachuri-dynasty  king  Bijjala  I  in  Karnataka, India.  The Basavarajadevara ragale (13 out of 25 sections are available)  by  the  Kannada  poet  Harihara  (c.1180)  is the  earliest  available  account  on  the  life  of  the  social reformer  and  is  considered  important  because  the author  was  a  near  contemporary  of  his  protagonist.[6] A full account of Basava's life and ideas are narrated in a  13th-century  sacred  Telugu  text  of  the  south  Indian Hindu  Lingayat  community,  the  Basava  purana  by Palkuriki Somanatha.  Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly  known  as  Vachanaas.  Basava  rejected gender  or  social  discrimination,  superstitions  and rituals  such  as  the  wearing  of  sacred  thread,  but introduced  Ishtalinga  necklace,  with  an  image  of  the Shiva  Liá¹…ga,  to  every  person  regardless  of  his  or  her birth, to be a constant reminder of one's bhakti to  Shiva.  As  the  chief  minister  of  his  kingdom,  he introduced  new  public  institutions  such  as  the Anubhava  Mantapa  (or,  the  "hall  of  spiritual experience"),  which  welcomed  men  and  women  from all  socio-economic  backgrounds  to  discuss  spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.  The  traditional  legends  and  hagiographic  texts  state Basava  to  be  the  founder  of  the  Lingayats.  However, modern scholarship  relying  on  historical  evidence  such  as  the  Kalachuri inscriptions state that Basava was the poet philosopher who revived, refined and energized an already existing tradition.  Basavanna literary works include the Vachana Sahitya in  Kannada  Language.  He  is  also  known  as Bhaktibhandari  (literally,  the  treasurer  of  devotion), Basavanna  (elder  brother  Basava)  or  Basaveswara (Lord Basava).

VI. Question & Answers   

1. The lines The rich / will make a temple for Siva', implies that  
a. they want to please the Lord.  
b. they can afford to build temples  
c. they believe that this is how they can serve God  
d.  they  believe  that  the  temple  is  the  only  place  to feel the presence of God.  
Ans: -
(c) they  believe that this  is  how they can serve God.   

2. Which of the following statements are true?  
a. the speaker is against building any structures for worshiping God  
b. it's not possible for the speaker to build a temple.  
c.  it's  only  an  excuse  given  by  the  speaker  for  not being able to build a temple.  
d.  the  speaker  believes  that  God  is  present  within ourselves and not in any temple.  
-  (d)  the  speaker  believes  that  God  is  present within ourselves and not in any temple.  

3. What are the feelings of the speaker, suggested in the question, "what shall I, a poor man, do?"
a. helplessness       
b. doubt  
c. humility         
d. anger  
e. pride         
f. anguish.  
Ans: -
(f) anguish  

4. The word 'Listen' in the last stanza is  
a. an order        
b. an appeal  
c. a request  
d. an advice  
Ans: -
(d) an advice   

5. The expression Things Standing', suggests  
a. any man-made temple  b. anybody who is standing  
c. anything which is static
d. the human body  
Ans: -
(c) anything which is static.  

6.  There  are  two  examples  of  paradox  in  the  last two  lines  (A  paradox  is  a  statement  containing opposite ideas)  
a)  What  opposite  ideas  are  suggested  in  'things standing shall fall'?  
Ans: -
Things standing shall fall' can be interpreted in various  ways.  The  poet  laments  his  inability  to  build temples;  hence the  phrase  can  refer  to  temples  which are  subject  to  nature's  fury  and  destruction  over  a period of time. It can also refer to pride and arrogance which can make a person stand erect in front of God when  he  should  be  bowing  before  Him.  It  may  also mean  that  static  objects  that  are  moved  by  piety  and devotion are subject to destruction and decay while the heart  that is  filled  with  devotion  is  blessed  and becomes immortal.   

b)  What  opposite  ideas  are  suggested  in  '  the moving shall ever stay'?  
Ans:  - 
The  moving  shall  ever  stay'  —  this  phrase  too can  be  interpreted  in  many  ways.  The  'moving',  i.e., the human  heart which  is a  'moving temple' cannot be destroyed  by  nature's  fury  unlike  a  temple  that  can  be damaged  easily  by  nature,  'the  moving'  can  also  refer to  humble  beings  who  are  swayed  by  devotion  and move  according  to  God's  will  unlike  the  'static'  that stand erect against God's wishes and get destroyed.  

7. What final message do the last two lines convey?
Ans:  -
  The  poet  is  consoling  himself  that  the  temple which he would never be able to construct, would any day  be destroyed, whereas the  'moving temple' that he carries  in  his  heart would  be  immortal and  intact.  The lines can also mean that the one who 'stands' in front of God without bowing down to Him, will surely  'fall' or be destroyed, whereas 'the moving', the one who bows down  in  front of  Him  and  acts  according  to  His  wish, would  stay  ever.  The  poet  finds  consolation  in  his modest circumstances and his devotion to God.
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