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THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS TO INDIA - Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions


1. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks occupied _________ (Constantinople)
2. The sea route between India and Europe was discovered by ________ (Vasco da Gama)
3. In 1741, Dutch declared war on ___________(Martanda Verma)
4. The capital of the French in India was _______ (Pondichery)
5. In 1757, Robert Clive declared ________ battle over Siraj-Ud-Daulah.(Plassey)
6. The Divani Rights over Bengal were handed over to the British by _____________ (Shah Alam II)
7. The Dual government policy was implemented by ____________ in Bengal. (Robert Clive)


1. How did trade take place India and Europe trade during Middle Ages?

1. There was great demand for Indian spices in Europe.
2. The Arab merchants carried Asian merchandise to Constantinople
3. The Italian merchants would buy them and sell them in Europe.
4. Thus, Constantinople became the ‘Gateway of European Trade’.

2. State the causes that resulted in the discovery of a new sea route to India.
1. The fall of Constantinople city.
2. The patronage of European kings to sailors
3. An attempt to break the Italian monopoly.
4. The research of Compass, astrolabes, fireworks

3. List the Europeans who came to India for trade.
The Portuguese
The Dutch
The English The French

4. Explain how Marthanda varma checked the Dutch? (3/4 marks)
(If the same question is asked for 2 marks, students can write initial 4 poitns.)

1. He compiled an army of 50,000 soldiers to extend his borders.
2. He defeated the monopoly of Dutch, by occupied the pepper growing areas.
3. He made the surrounding areas to oppose the Dutch.
4. He defeated the Dutch, who attacked Travancore.
5. He captured their Nedumangada and Kottarakaras trading centres.
6. He wrote a strong letter to the Dutch on the pepper trade.
7. He defeated the Dutch in 4 days fierce battle of Kolachchal.
8. Finally, the Dutch company completely surrendered.

5. Explain the Second Carnatic War.

1. The French made Salabath Jung as the Hyderabad Nizam.
2. They appointed Bussy for Nizam’s protection.
3. In Arcot, Robert Clive attacked Chandasaheb& killed him.
4. They put Mohammad Ali in his place.
5. The war finally ended with the ‘Treaty of Pondicherry’.
6. Describe the causes and effects of Battle Plassey.

Causes:- 1. Misuse of Dasthaks by company employees.
2. Mending of the fort without Nawab’s permission.
3. The Black Room Tragedy.
Effects:- 1. Brought out the Indian’s immorality, lack of unity.
2. Mir Jaffar became the Nawab of Bengal.
3. The company got an exclusive right to trade in Bengal.
4. Mir Jaffar owed the company 17 crores and 70 lakhs as war indemnity.

7. What were the results of Battle of Buxar?
1. Shah Alam accorded the Diwani Rights over Bengal to British.
2. He gave away all the rights over Bengal to the company.
3. He received annual fee of Rs 26 Lakhs. 4. The Nawab of Awadh had to pay a loss of Rs 50Lakhs.
5. The company paid pension to Mir Jaffar's son.


1. Explain the achievements of Alfonso-de- Albuquerque?

1. After Almeida, he came India.
2. He is the REAL FOUNDER of the Portuguese Empire in India.
3. He waged a war against Bijapur Sultan& won Goa.
4. He made Goa their administrative center.

2. Explain the First Carnatic War.
1. La Bourdonnais invaded & captured Madras.
2. So British request the help of Anwaruddin.
3. The amy sent by Anwaruddin was defeated by French.
4. La Bourdonnais took money from British& returned Madras.
5. Enraged Dupleix tried to take Madras, but failed. 6. This war ended with ‘TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE’

3. What were the consequences (results) of the II Carnatic War?
1. This war ended with ‘TREATY OF PONDICHERRY’.
2. The French recalled Dupleix to France.
3. The French suffered a political setback.
4. This war brought prestige to the British.
4. Describe the Third Carnatic War.
1. COUNT DE LALLY attempted to besiege the Wandiwash fort.
2. But Sir Eyre Coote defeated French& arrested BUSSY.
3. LALLY escaped and hid in Pondicherry.
4. But when Eyre Coote also attacked Pondicherry, LALLI SURRENDERED UNCONDITIONALLY.

5. Describe the impact/result of the Third Carnatic War.
1. The FRENCH LOST all their bases in India.
2. ‘TREATY OF PARIS’ was signed.
3. Pondicherry was returned to French.
4. British defeated all their rivals in South India.
5. The French lost their importance in India.

6. What were the CAUSES of the Battle of Buxar?
1. Mir Qasim declared all business DUTYFREE in Bengal.
2. So British trade suffered a lot.
3. They dethroned Mir Qasim& made Mir Jafar as the Nawab.
4. So, Mir Qasim went for war.

7. Write Note on DUAL GOVERNMENT.
1. It was brought by ROBERT CLIVE in 1765.
2. It came into effect in BENGAL.
3. The BRITISH gained the right to COLLECT LAND TAX.
4. The NAWAB had to look after the ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES ONLY.


1. Which Indian items were most in demand in Europe? 
There was a great demand for Indian spices in Europe.

2. What were the Indian spices, that are in great demand in Europe?
There was a huge demand in Europe for spices such as pepper, cumin, cinnamon, cardamom and ginger.

3. What was the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantium) Empire?
Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantium) Empire.

4. To which city did Arab merchants deliver Asian goods?
Arab merchants were delivered Asian goods to Constantinople.

5. Who among the European countries buy spices from the city of Constantinople?
The Italian merchants would buy the spices from Constantinople.

6. Which city was known as the ‘Gateway to European Trade’?
Constantinople was known as the European gateway to Europe.

7. Why did the city of Constantinople called the ‘Gateway to European Trade’?

Because, it was the center of international trade between Asia and Europe.
8. Who gained monopoly over trades of ASIAN countries?
The Arabs merchants had gained monopoly over the Asian countries.

9. Who monopolized the trade of EUROPEAN countries?
The Italian merchants were the ones who monopolized the trade of European countries.

10. Through which city, the trade between Asia and Europe was out?
Trade between Asia and Europe was carried through the City of Constantinople.

11. Which city was conquered by Ottoman Turks in 1453?
The Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453

12. Why did the kings of European countries, such as Spain and Portugal, encourage the sailors to find a new sea route?
To break the MONOPOLY OF Italian traders.

13. Which are the Scientific discoveries, that helped sailors to find new sea routes ? 
Compass, astrolabes, gun powder, map.

14. Who was Vasco da Gama?
Vasco da Gama wasa Portuguese sailor.

15. Who discovered a new sea route to India?
Vasco da Gama discovered a new sea route to India.

16. When did Vasco da Gama come to India?
Vasco da Gama came to India in 1498 AD.

17. Which place did Vasco da Gama reach by sea route?
Vasco da Gama reached Kappad near Calicut by sea route.

18. Who were the first Europeans to re-stablish trade between India and Europe?
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to re-establish trade between India and Europe. 

19. Who were the first Europeans to arrive in India by water?
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in India by water.

20. Who were the first to arrive in India and the last to leave Europe?
The Portuguese were the first to arrive in India and the last to leave Europe.

21. Which two seas are connected by the Suez Canal?
The Suez Canal connects the Red Sea and the Mediterraneansea.

22. Which waterway was the trade route between India and Europe until the Suez Canal was built?

Until the Suez Canal was built, the waterway founded by Vasco da Gama was a trade route between India and Europe.

23. Who was the first Viceroy of Portugal?
Francisco de Almeida was the first viceroy of the Portuguese.

24. What was the special policy of Francisco de Almeida?
Francisco de Almeida's Special Policy was ‘BLUE WATER POLICY’

25. What is a Blue Water Policy model?
Blue Water Policy is a policy to establish the supremacy over the sea instead of supremacy over land.

26. Who is known as the ‘Real Founder’ of the Portuguese Empire in India?
Alfonso de Albuquerque

27. Which territory was won by Alfonso de Albuquerque over Sultan of   Bijapur?

28. Goa was won by Alfonso de Albuquerque in _______ 1510 AD

29. What was the cause of the Portuguese decline in India?
The arrival of English and French to India caused the Portuguese  to fade in India.

30. Where did the people of Dutch belong to?

31. When was the Dutch East India Company started?
in 1602 AD.

32. Who broke the monopoly of the Portuguese in India?
The Dutch

33. Who was the king protected the Wynad province from the foreigners?
Martanda Varma

34. What was the period of Marthanda Varma's reign?
The reign of Marthanda Varma's was from 1729 to 1758 AD.

35. Where did Martanda Varma move his capital from? Marthanda Varman shifted his capital from Padmanabhapuram to Trivandrum.

36. What did Marthanda Varma make his capital known for?
He made his capital as ‘World Travancore Province’.

37. Which weak king was the maternal uncle of Marthanda Varma?
Rama Varma, maternal uncle, was a weak king.

38. Who told Rama Varma to contact the Madurai Pandya?
Martanda Varma, nephew of Rama Varma told Rama Varma to contact the Madurai Pandya. vWhen he was just 5 years old, Marthanda Varma attracted the attention of his father-in-law by telling him to contact Pandyas Madurai.

40. When the Dutch attacked Travancore, which of the provinces gave their help to Dutch? Kayamkulam, Kochi, Purakkad and Vadakunkur provinces.

41. Which of the two Dutch trading centers captured by Marthanda Varma?
Nedumangada and Kottarakkara.

42. Who wrote a strong letter to the Dutch?
King Martanda Varma 43. What were the reasons for the decline of Dutch power in India?
A) The rise of the English in India.
B) The acquisition of South-East Asia Islands by the Dutch

44. What are the ‘warehouses’?
The Warehouses wereplaces for storing merchandise.

45. When the British Queen was granted a license to English East India Company?
On 31st December 1600

46. For how many years, did British Queen issue a royal charter (permission)for company's trade?
For 15 years

47. In which year did the English East India Company formally start its business?


48. Where did the English start their FIRST FACTORY in India?

In Surat

49. Who gave the permission for English East India Company to start the first factory in Surat?

50. Who was the ambassador of King James-I of England arrived at the court of Jahangir? 
Sir Thomas Roe

51. Which was the fort built by the British in Madras?
St. George Port

52. How much did Charles-II (the Prince of England) rent the Bombay to the Company? 
10 Pounds per annum

53. Which fort was built by the English on the banks of Hooghly River in Bengal?
Fort William

54. Which three villages did the British buy from the Governor of Bengal and build Fort William?
The three villages were Sutanuthi, Calcutta and Govindpura

55. At the end of the 17th century, which were the 3 Presidencies of the British in India?
Madras, Bombay, Calcutta

56. Which Indian city was the capital of the British at the end of 18th century?

57. When and where was the French East India Company started?

Started in France in 1664 AD.

58. Where did the first French factory start in India?
Started in Surat.

59. Which were the major French trade centers in India?
Machilipatnam, Chandranagar, Mahe, Karaikal, Kasimbazar, Balasur, Pondicherry.

60. Which was the French capital of India? 

61. From whom did the French purchase Pondicherry?& When?

Pondicherry was purchased by a local Muslim officer of Valikandapuram in 1674 AD.

62. Which place was the capital of the French until they left India?

63. What was the previous name of Puducherry?
The previous name of Puducherry was Valikandapuram.

64. Who was the great and ambitious officer of the French?

65. Who dreamt of achieving French hegemony over India?


66. Who was the French governor of Pondicherry?

Dupleix was French governor of Pondicherry.

67. What was the main factor responsible for the Carnatic wars? 
The English & French tried to EXPLOIT THE SITUATION OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY OF HYDERABAD & CARNATIC REGION was the main factor responsible for the Carnatic wars.

68. What do you mean by Carnatic? 
Eastern Part of Tamil Nadu.

69. Who established the Kingdom of Hyderabad?

70. Who ruled the Carnatic region during the time of Asaf-Jha?
Dost Ali

71. Why did Asaf-Jha made Anwaruddin as the Nawab of Carnatic?
The Marathas killed Dost Ali, the Nawab of Carnatic. So, Asaf-Jha made his confidant- Anwaruddin- as the Nawab of Carnatic.

72. Who was the chief of the French army in Mauritius?
La Bordonnais

73. What was the year of the first Carnatic War?
74. With which treaty, the first Carnatic War was ended? 1stCarnatic War ended with the ‘Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle’.

75. With whom, the treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle signed?
The treaty ofAix-La-Chapelle was signed between FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN EUROPE.

76. The 2ndCarnatic War was took place in _
________1749-1754 AD.

77. In which battle, did Anwaruddin die?
Anwaruddin died in the BATTLE OF AMBUR.

78. Who killed Anwaruddin in the Battle of Ambur?

79. How did Chanda Saheb become the Nawab of Carnatic?
Anwar Uddin, the Nawab of Carnatic, was killed in the Battle of Ambur. Hence Chandasaheb became the Navab.

80. Who was appointed by the French to protect the Salabath Jung?
French appointed an officer named BUSSY.

81. With which treaty, the Second Carnatic War came to an end?
The 2ndCarnatic War ended with the TREATY OF PONDICHERRY.

82. What was the result of the Second Carnatic War?

It gave A POLITICAL SETBACK to the French& brought PRESTIGE for the British.

83. The Third Carnatic War fought in __________ 1756-1763 AD

84. Which French officer sieges the Wandiwash Fort?

COUNT DE LALLY seized the Wandiwash fort.

85. Who defeated the French and imprisoned Bussy in the Battle of Wandiwash?

86. Which treaty ended the Third Carnatic War?

87. What was the major result (consequence) of three Carnatic wars?
b) ENGLISH started CONSOLIDATING their power in South India.

88. Who was the first official to establish British power in India?

89. Which French officer dreamed of political domination over India?


90. Who was trained in the army of locals raised by Dupleix?

HYDER ALI was trained by the domestic army built by Dupleix.

91. Who started/issued the DASTAKS to conduct free trade in Bengal?
The Mughal ruler FARUK SIAR

92. What is a ‘DASTAK’?
DASTAK is a LICENCE to conduct import & export without paying any TAX.

93. After the death of Ali Wardikhan, who became the Nawab of Bengal?
94. The famous Battle of Plassey was fought on ______ June 23, 1757 AD 

95. What is the BLACK ROOM TRAGEDY?

Siraj-Ud-Daula imprisoned 146 British in a small room in the Fort William, of which 123 died. This is called ‘BLACK ROOM TRAGEDY’

96. Who was the military head of Siraj-Ud- Daula?

97. Why did Mir Jaffar AGREE TO REMAIN NEUTRAL in the Battle of Plassey?
The British OFFERED that, they would make him the NAWAB OF BENGAL.

98. Who became the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey?

MIR JAFFAR became the Nawab of Bengal.

99. How much compensation did Mir Jaffer give the British AS A WAR INDEMNITY?

100. Why did the British oppose Mir Qasim?

Mir Qasim declared all business was DUTYFREE IN BENGAL.

101. After dethroned, with whom did Mir Qasim make an agreement?

Mir Qasim entered into agreements with SHAH ALAM-II (Mughal ruler) & SHUJ-UD-DAULA (Nawab of Awadh)

102. What was the year of the Battle of Buxar?

1764 AD

103. Who was the commander of the British army in the BATTLE OF BUXAR?


104. Which battle made the British – the real holders of power over Bihar, Bengal & Odisha province?


105. Who gave the DIVANI RIGHTS to the East India Company?

106. what is a ‘DIVANI RIGHT’? 
Right to collect LAND TAX

107. Shah Alam-II gave away all the rights over Bengal to the British for an annual fee of Rupees
_________(26 LAKHS)

108. How much war indemnity did Shuj-Ud- Daula have to pay to the British after the battle of Buxar?

109. Who introduced ‘DUAL GOVERNMENT’ in Bengal?

110. Where and when ‘DUAL GOVERNMENT’ was first implemented?
The ‘DUAL GOVERNMENT’ was first introduced in BENGAL in 1765 AD

111. What were the conditions of a ‘Dual Government’?

1) The British had the right to collect LAND TAXES.
2) Nawab had the only power over ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES.
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