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WHAT IS MORAL ACTION? - Class 10 1st Language English Textbook Solutions



I. About the Author

Mahatma  Gandhi,  byname  of  Mohandas  Karamchand Gandhi,  (born  October  2,  1869,  Porbandar,  India— died  January  30,  1948,  Delhi),  Indian  lawyer, politician,  social  activist,  and  writer  who  became  the leader  of  the  nationalist  movement  against  the  British rule  of  India.  As  such,  he  came  to  be  considered  the father  of  his  country.  Gandhi  is  internationally esteemed  for  his  doctrine  of  nonviolent  protest (satyagraha) to achieve political and social progress.  Mahatma Gandhi was the leader of India’s non-violent independence  movement  against  British  rule  and  in South  Africa  who  advocated  for  the  civil  rights  of Indians.  Gandhi  studied  law  and  organized  boycotts against  British  institutions  in  peaceful  forms  of  civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948.  

IV. Question and Answers  

1.  In  paragraph  one,  Gandhiji  says  that  our conventional behavior is:  
a. Immoral  
b. moral  
c. neither moral nor immoral  
d. necessary  e. unnecessary  
Ans: -
(c) neither moral nor immoral.   

2. What is a non-moral action?  
Ans:  -
  Action  which  does  not  necessarily  involve morality, but is born of prevailing conventions.  

3. What is the difference between a  mechanical act and an intentional act?  
- If the action is done mechanically and does not spring  from our own will, there  is  no moral content in the  act.  It  is  a  mechanical  act.  Such  action  would  be moral if we think it proper to act like a machine and do so since in doing so, we use our discrimination.   

4. Give an example each for conventional behaviour and a moral act.  
-  Greeting  everyone  in  the  morning  is conventional  behaviour.  It  becomes  a  moral  act  when it is done with the intention of brightening up the lives of those people.  

5. The first Paragraph discusses what is not a moral action.  The  second  paragraph  gives  one  important criterion  to  decide  what  constitutes  a  moral  action. What is that criterion?  
-  A  moral  act  must  spring  from  our  own  will, from  the  use  of  our  discrimination.  This  is  the criterion.  

6.  When  can  the  messenger's  act  become  a  moral action?  
Ans:  - 
When  the  messenger,  instead  of  mechanically delivering the order, does it because it is his duty to do so, it becomes a moral action.  

7.  When,  according  to  Gandhi,  can  we  regard ourselves to have stepped on to the moral road?  
Ans: -
When we all care only for what our conscience says,  then  alone  can  we  be  regarded  to  have  stepped onto the moral road.   

8.  What  is  the  belief  that  Gandhi  talks  of  in paragraph 2?  
Ans:  - 
Gandhiji  says  that  we  cannot  be  truly  moral  if we  do  not  believe  and  experience  the  belief  that  God within us, the God of all, is the ever-present witness to all our acts.   

9.  All  good  actions  need  not  be  moral  acts.  When does  good  action  become  a  moral  act?  (Paragraph 3). Give an example  
Ans:  -
  Feeding  poor  people  is  an  example  of  a  good action. It is a moral act when the person, out of pity for the poor, feeds them.  

10. In the example of feeding the poor, whose action is moral action?
Ans:  - 
When  a  man,  out  of  pity  for  the  poor,  feeds them, it is a moral act. When he does the same act with the  motive  of  earning  prestige,  the  action  is  no  longer moral.   

11. The result of our action determines whether our action  is  moral  or  non-moral  (say  whether  the statement is True or False)  
Ans: -

12.  Why  does  Gandhi  say  that  Alexander's conquests cannot be called moral actions?  
-  Alexander's  conquests  cannot  be  called  moral actions  because  the  intention  behind  all  of  them  was only power and renowned.  

13. In each paragraph, Gandhiji adds one criterion to  consider  an  action  moral.  What  criterion  is added in paragraph 4?
-  Gandhiji  says  that  an  action  is  moral  if  it  is done voluntarily and without compulsion or fear.  

14. When does simple living become moral?  
Ans: -
Simple  living becomes  moral when the person, although wealthy, thinks of all the want and  misery  in the  world  about  him  and  feels  that  he  ought  to  live  a plain, simple life and not one of ease and luxury.   

15.  When  does  an  employee's  action  of  paying higher salaries to his employees remain non-moral?  
Ans:  -
  When  the  employer  sympathizes  with  his employees  or  pays  them  higher  wages  lest  they  leave him, his action remains non-moral.   

16.  When  Gandhiji  quotes  Shakespeare  (in paragraph  5),  what  argument  does  he  want  to strengthen?  
Ans:  -
  When  he  quotes  Shakespeare,  Gandhiji  wants to  emphasize  the  point  that  any  action,  even  one  of showing love, done with a profit motive, ceases to be a moral  action.  Honesty  should  be  resorted  to,  not because  it  dies  the  best  policy  of  all,  but  because  it  is the right policy.  

17.  Gandhiji  mentions  the  name  of  Henry  Clay  as an  example  of  moral/  non-moral  action.  (Choose the right answer)  
Ans: -
Non-moral action.   

18. What qualities of David Webster does Gandhiji mention?  
-  David  Webster  had  great  intellect  and  a wonderful sense of the heroic and the sublime.   

19.  What  is  the  single  mean  act  of  Webster mentioned in paragraph 6?  
-  He  once  sold  his  intellectual'  integrity  for  a price.  

20.  Why  is  it  difficult  to  judge  the  morality  of  a man's action?  
Ans:  - 
It  is  difficult  to  judge  the  morality  of  a  man's action  because  we  cannot  penetrate  the  depths  of  his mind.   

21.  What  arguments  does  Gandhiji  give  to  justify that  a  moral  act  should  be  free  from  fear  and compulsion?  
Ans:  - 
He  says  that  there  is  no  morality  in  a  person's act if he rises early out of the fear that, if he is late for his  office,  he  may lose.  His  situation.  Similarly,  there is  no morality  in  his  living a simple and unpretentious life if he has not the means to live otherwise.   
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