Learning Card-1

Choose the correct answer:

1. Hormone that has iodine and Amino acids.

a) Pituitary hormone b) Thyroxin c) Parathormone d) Cortisone

2. One of the following is a plant growth in hibiting hormone

a) Auxin b) Gibberellins c) Ethylene d) Cytokinins.

3. Deficiency of Parathormone leads to

a) Myxedema b) Cretinism c) Acromegaly d) Painful Muscle Cramps

4. A Thin, transparent layer that covers the front part of the eye ball is

a) Retina b) Sclera c) Choroid d) Conjunctiva

5. The light sensitive layer of human eye is

a) Cornea b) Retina c) Sclera d) choroid

II Answer the following questions

1. What is irritability?

All living things have a basic tendency of showing responses to changes in the environment. This is called irritability.

2. Name the endocrine glands in the human body.

Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, Adrenal glands, Islets of Langerhans and gonads.

3. Name the hormones secreted by adrenal glands.

Adrenal cortex secrets the hormone cortisone. Adrenal medulla secrets the hormones adrenalin, nor adrenaline and dopamine.

4. Write the function of cerebro spinal Fluid.

Cerebro spinal fluid keeps flowing between brain and spinal card and gives nourishment.

5. Name the two parts of Forebrain.

a) cerebrum

b) Diencephalon.

6. Name the two types of nerve fibres present in spinal cord.

a) Sensory nerve fibres

b) motor nerve fibres.

7. Name the three parts of human eye

Sclera, choroid and Reina.

8. Name the two fluids present in the eye.

Aqueous humour and vitreous humour.

9. Name the two parts of outer ear.

ear lobe (Pinna) and auditory canal.

10. Name the three small bones of the middle ear

Malleus Incus and stapes.

11. What are the two parts of inner ear?

Utriculus and sacculus.

12. What are phyto hormones? Name the two types of phyto hormones.

Plant hormones are also called phytohormones.


a) Plant growth promoters. Eg: auxins.

b) Plant growth inhibitors eg: Ethylene.

13. How are Dwarfism and Gigantism caused?

Dwarfism is caused due to less secretion of growth hormone prior to sexual maturity.

Gigantism is caused due to excess secretion of growth hormone prior to sexual maturity.

14. Name the hormone secreted by Thyroid gland. Write its function.

Thyroxin is the hormone secreted by thyroid gland.

Thyroxin influences the rate of metabolism, increases the heat and promotes the mental and physical development of the body.

15. What is simple Goitre? What are its symptoms?

Simple Goitre is a disorder caused due to deficiency of iodine in the diet.

Symptoms: people with swollen neck.

16. How is myxedema caused? Write its symptoms.

Myxedema is caused due to the underactivity of thyroid gland in adults.

Symptoms: loss of mental and physical vigour, increase in the body weight,

Thickening of the skin and lower rate of heart beat.

17. Name the hormone secreted by parathyroid glands. Write its function.

Parathormone is the hormone secreted by parathyroid glands.

This hormone regulates the amount of calcium salts in blood and bones.

18. Name the hormones secreted by Islets of Langerhans. Write their function.

Insulin and glucagon are the hormones secreted by Islets of langerhans. Insulin promotes the conversion of glucose into Glycogen which is stored in liver and muscles.

Glucagon promotes the conversion Glycogen into Glucose.

19. Mention any two importances of nervous system.

* Nervous system controls and coordinates various activities and functions of different organs and organ systems in the body.

* It regulates both voluntary and involuntary activities of the body.

20. Name the three types of neurons and write their function.

Sensory neuron: It carries impulses from receptors to brain or spinal card.

Motor neuron: It carries impulses from brain or spinal card to effectors.

Mixed neuron: It carries both stimulus and response impulses.

21. What is meninges? Name the three layers of meanings.

Both brain and spinal card aee surrounded by three membranes collectively called meninges. The three layers of meninges are outer duramater, middle arachnoid and inner piamater.

22. For what activities does cerebrum is the centre?

Cerebrum is the centre for intelligence, imagination, emotions, reasoning and will power.

23. Write the functions of the following parts of Hind brain. a) Cerebellum b) Pons c) Medulla oblongata.

a) Cerebellum is responsible for maintenance of the balance of the body.

b) Pons regulaes mastication, facial expression and respiration.

c) Medulla oblongata is concerned with involuntary activities like breathing, heart beat, and movements of the digestive tract. It is also involved in the secretion of enzymes and maintaing blood pressure.

24. What is reflex action? Give one example.

A kind of sudden and involuntary response of the body is called reflex action.

Eg: when we touch a hot pan, we will scream and with draw our hands.

25. What is the difference between sympathetic and para sympathetic nervous system?

Sympathetic and para sympathetic nervous systems control opposite actions of parts or organs of the body. For example: When sympathetic nervous system stimulates the dialation of pupil of the eye parasympathetic nervous system controls the contraction of the same.

26. Mention the function of the following accessary parts of the eye a) Lachrymal glands b) conjunotive.

a) Lacrymal glands secrete tear to wash dust and dirt.

b) Conjunctiva protects the cornea of the eye.

27. Write the function of the following parts of eye a) Cornea b) Iris c) Lens.

a) Cornea acts as outer lens of the eye.

b) Iris has pigment cells that are responsible for different colours of the eyes.

c) Lens focusses the image of the object on retina.

28. What is the accommodation of the eye?

When we see a nearer object, the convexity of the lenses increases and the eye ball gets bulged when we see a distant object the convexity of the lens decreases and the eye ball becomes flat. This capacity of the lens to alter its focal length in order to focus the light rays in called accommodation of the eye.

29. What are short sightedness and long sightedness? How can they be corrected?

Short sightedness is a condition where a person is able to see the nearer objects clearly but not the distant objects. This defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable focal length.

Farsightedness is a condition where a person is able to see the distant clearly but not the nearer objects. This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens.

30. What is Glaucoma? How can it be cured?

Some people who are aged above 40-45 years may be suffering from a serious disease of the eye which would often lead to total blindness. This is called Glaucoma. This can be cured in early stages by medicines and in advanced stages, a surgery may be required.

31. Mention the cares of the eye

* Do not strain eyes by reading books with very small letters in dim light for long time.

* Avoid direct bright light.

* Eyes should be washed with clean and cold water at least twice a day

32. Write the function of Eustachian canal.

Eustachian canal helps in equalising the air pressure on either side of the ear drum.

33. Mention the cares of the ear.

*Wax produced in auditory canal must be regularly removed using safe ear buds. Sometimes it becomes hard. It should not be removed using hard and sharp objects which may damage the eardrum. Consult the ear specialist.

* Loud noise should be avoided as it may be hamper hearing. Plug the ears with soft cotton or use ear plugs.

* Common cold or throat infection sometimes leads to the infection of the middle ear. Consult the ear specialist.

34. What is the function of factory nerve?

Olfactory nerve carries the smell impulses to the olfactory centre of cerebrum.

35. Where are the taste buds of four tastes located in human togue?

Taste buds for sweet are located in front, those of salt at anterior edges, those for sour at sides and those for bitter are located in the posterior region of the tongue.

36. Mention the cares of the skin.

Avoid any injury or wound on the skin as it leads to infection. Treat the wound immediately with antiseptic lotions.

* If you get skin diseass like ring warm, consult the dermatologist.

* Cover the skin with warm clothing during winter.




Learning Card-2

Choose the correct answer:

1. The hormone that stimulates the secretion of sex harmones by the gonads:

a) Leutinising hormone b) oxytocin c) Vasopression d) melanocyte.

2. The part of the brain which controls facial expression and respiration.

a) Cerebellum b) Pons c) cerebrum d) medulla oblongata.

3. The middle bone of the middle ear is:

a) Stapes b) Incus b) malleus c) cochlea

Answer the following questions;

1. Give two examples for growth promoting and growth inhibiting hormones.

a) Growth promoting hormoness: Auxins, Gibberellins.

b) Growth inhibiting hormones: Abscisic acid, ethylene.

2. Mention any four functions of plant hormones.

* Promote cell division, cell enlargement/elongation and cell differenciation.

* Delay ageing of leaves.

* Initiate the development of roots, flowers and fruits.

* Control the premature of withering of flowers and fruits.

3. What is acromegaly? Write its symptoms.

When pituitary growth harmones are secreted in excess after maturity, it leads to a disorder called acromegaly.

Symptoms: Plotrusion of jaws and nose and disappropriate growth of bones in hands and legs.

4. Why is simple goitre called an endemic disease?

It is restricted to a specific region.

5. What is diabetes mellitus? Mention its symptons.

Under secretion of insulin leads to increased level of glucose in the blood that is excreted through urine. This condition is called diabetes mellitus.

Symptoms: increased glucose level in the blood, excretion of glucose through urine, frequent urination, thirst, and fatigue and sweating.

6. Write the functions of the following hormones.

a) Testosterone b) Estrogen c) progesterone.

a) Testasterone: This hormone is responsible for the appearance of masculine characters in males.

b) Estrogen: This hormone is responsible for the appearance of faminine characters in females after puberty.

c) Progesterone: This hormone stimulates the changes in the uterus during menstrucal cycle and pregnancy.

7. Mention any four functions of hypotnalamus.

* Hypothalamus regulates body temperature.

* It regulates water balance.

* It regulators appetite and sleep

* It controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland.

8. What is reflex arc? Name the parts of reflex arc.

The pathway of nerve impulses involved in the reflex action is called the reflex arc. The parts of reflex are: a) Receptor b) sensory neuron, c) Association neuron. d) Motor neuron d) Effector.

9. What does peripheral nervous system consist of?

Peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

10. Name the structure that joins right cerebral hemisphere and left cerebral hemisphere.

Corpus callasum.

11. A drunkard stumbles give scientific reason.

Alcohol has affected the function of cerebellum temporarily. Hence a drunkard stumbles.

12. What is the difference between blind spot and yellow spot?

Blind spot

Yellow spot

a) There are no sensory cells in the spot

a) A large number of cons are located opposite to the pupil at a depressed point on retins called Yellow spot.

b) No image is formed at this spot

b) A district and clear image is formed at this spot.

13. There is no image formation at blind spot why?

Blind spot has no sensory cells. Hence no image is formed at this spot.

14. What is the reason for Diabetic retionpathy? How can it be cured?

A long term diabetes may make a person lose eye sight. This condition is called diabetic refinopathy. This disorder can be cured by laser treatment or a surgery called vitrectomy.

15. How is Astigmatism caused? What type of lens is used to correct this?

Astigmatism is caused due to unevenness of the refractive surfaces of the eye such as lens or cornea.

This can be corrected by using suitable cylindrical lenses.

16. What is the difference between endolymph and perilymph?

Endolymph surrounds the entire ear while porilymph surround the endolymph.

17. Name the two parts of the ear responsible for balance of the human body.

Utriculus and semicirculas canals.

18. Write the function of taste buds of the tongue.

Tastebuds of the tongue consists of a group of sensory cells connected to the sensory nerve which carries the taste impulses to the cerebrum which interprets the impulses as taste.

19. Describe the structure of inner ear.

The inner ear is a debcate part endosed in a bony cavity of the skill. The entire inner ear is filled with fluids called perilymph and endolymph.

The inner ear has two main parts namely upper utriculus and lower sacculus. The utriculus has semicircular canals and cochlea. Cochlea occupies a large space in the innner ear and encloses organ of corti. It has sound receptor cells. All these cells connect to form the sensory nerve of the ear called auditory nerve which carries the sound impulses to the auditory centre of the cerebrum.

20. Two wheel riders should wear helmets compulsorily why?

In order to give protection to the brain and spinal cord two wheel riders should wear helmet compulsorily.




Learning Card-3

Choose the correct answer:

1. Which highly developed part of the brain is responsible for human intelligence?

a) Thalamus b) Pons c) Cortex d) medulla.

2. The part of the ear that equalizes air pressure on either side of the eardrum:

a) Auditory canal b) Semicircular canals c) Eustachian canal d) utriculus.

Answer the following questions:

1. Mention the secretions of pituitary gland and write theirfunctions.

Growth hormone: it regulates both physical and mental growth

Thyroid stimulation hormone: It stimulates the secretion of hormone from thyroid gland.

Adreno corticotrophic hormone: It regulates the secretion of hormone from thyroid gland.

Prolaction: It stimulates the secretion of milk from mammary glands.

Follicle stimulating hormone: It stimulates the production of gametes from gonads.

Leutinising hormone: It stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the gonads.

Vaso prexin: It controls the excretion of water from kidneys.

2. How is critinism caused? Write its symptoms.

Creinism is a condition seen in children without a properly functioning thyroid gland.

Symptoms: stunted growth, retorted mental developmen, bow legs, defective teeth, protrusion of the tongue and loose wrinkled skin with leathering tissue.

3. Why Adrenaline is called emergency hormone?

In emergency situations like fear, anxiety angry and emotional stress, it is secreted in excess and prepares the body to face the emergency situations, properly. Hence it is called emergency hormone.

4. What is the function of mid brain?

Mid brain connects fore brain and hind brain through which impulses move from hind brain to fore brain. It is concerned with reflex movements of the head and neck in responses to visual and auditory stimuli.

5. What is the difference between sensory nerve cell and motor nerve cell?

Sensory neuron conducts the stimulus impulse from the receptor to the spinal card.

Motor nerve cell conducts response impulse from spinal cord to the effectors.

6. With reference to human brain write the difference between grey matter and white matter.

Grey matter made up of cytons of nerve cell. White matter is made up of Axin and dendrite,

7. What is autonomic nervous system? Name the two parts of autonomic nervous system.

Some of the involventary organs in the human body are connected and controlled by the set of peripheral nerves. This is called autonomous nervous system

Parts: a) Sympathetic system b) Parasympathetic system.

8. Any injury to the left cerebral hemisphere paralyzes the function of right side organ. Why?

The nerves arising from left cerebral hemisphere control the right side organ of the body.

9. What the difference between Rod cells and Cone cells?

Rods are sensitive to dim light and cannot distinguish colours.

Cones are sensitive to bright light and can distinguish colours.

10. Explain the functioning of human eye.

The reflected light rays from the object enter the eye ball through the conjunctiva, cornea, pupil and lens and get focussed on the fovea of retina to form a small, real and inverted image. The visual receptors get stimulated by photochemical reactions and convert these images into electrical impulses. These impulses are carried though the optic nerve to the viual centre where they get interpreted. It results in vision.

11. Explain the mechanism of ear.

The sound waves from the source are directed by the ear pin to the eardrum through the auditory canal. The eardrum vibrates and these vibrations are transmitted to the inner ear through the chain of bones of the middle ear. The vibrations are further transmitted to the organ of corti of the cochlea through both perilymphs and endolymph. The receptors present in the organ of corti absorb these sound impulses which are then carried by the auditory nerve to the auditory centre of the cerebrum. Here they are interpreted and sound is heard.

12. Explain the process of detection of taste.

When food passes on the surface of the tongue, the sensory cells are chemically stimulated. The chemical impulses are converted into electrical impulses. They are carried by the sensory nerve to the cerebrum of the brain, where taste is interpreted.

13. A person having throat infection gets earache. Give reasons

Middle ear is connected to the throat through Eustachian tube. Hence infection to the throat can result in ear ache.

14. A person entering into a cinema hall for a matinee show, can not se the seats for a few seconds Give reasons.

Light enters into the eye ball through pupil which takes a little time to reflect the light rays. Therefore a person entering into a cinema hall for a matinee show cannot see the seats for a few seconds.

15. A child has accidentally inserted a button into its nose. What first aid should be given to the child to remove the object?

The foreign body can be removed by causing violent sneezing using a pinch of snuff.

16. After going several rounds in a merry go round, we feel imbalanced for a while. Give scientific reason.

While going several rounds in a merry go round peripheral and endolymph are displaced. They take a little time to come back to their orginal position. Therefor we feel imbalanced.

17. Define :

a) Receptors: The organs that receive stimulai.

b) Effectors: The organs which show visible response

c) Conductors: The tissues which connect the receptors and effectors and help in the transmission of impulses.

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